Panta Rhei

Panta Rhei is a simplified version of the famous Greek philosopher Heraclitus' teachings. It basically means, everything flows.

Panta Rhei – or Panta Rei – is a famous aphorism attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus. It is commonly translated as “Everything flows.” Although it may seem simple at first glance, Heraclitus’ remark holds profound meaning. Let me elaborate:

  • Heraclitus: He was a pre-Socratic philosopher known for his deep insights into the nature of reality and change. He lived around 500 BCE in Ephesus (now part of Turkey).
  • Panta Rhei (πάντα ῥεῖ): This phrase captures the idea that everything is in a constant state of flux. It reflects the notion that the universe is dynamic, always in motion, and undergoing continuous transformation.
  • Unity of Opposites: Heraclitus believed that opposites are interconnected and necessary for existence. For example, day and night, life and death, hot and cold—all these dualities coexist and contribute to the overall balance of the cosmos.

In summary, Panta Rhei expresses the concept that change is fundamental to existence, and nothing remains static. It has had a significant influence on Western philosophy and remains a thought-provoking idea to this day.

“It is not possible to step into the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not the same man.”
– Heraclitus


Heraclitus (born around 540 BCE in Ephesus, Anatolia—now Selçuk, Turkey, and died around 480 BCE) was a significant Greek philosopher known for his profound insights into the nature of reality and change.

Here are some key points about him:

Introduction to Heraclitus – by the Academy of Ideas

“There is nothing permanent except change.” / “The only thing that is constant is change.”
– Heraclitus

  • Cosmology and Fire:
    • Heraclitus believed that fire served as the basic material principle of an orderly universe. He viewed fire not only as a physical element but also as a symbol of transformation and change.
    • His cosmology emphasized the dynamic nature of existence, where everything is in constant flux. This idea is encapsulated in his famous aphorism: “Panta Rhei” (meaning “everything flows”).
      • Life Is Flux: Heraclitus recognized that permanence is an Illusion (of Reality). Change isn’t merely a part of life; it defines life itself. The very essence of existence lies in its dynamic nature. Nothing remains unchanged, and everything is in a perpetual state of becoming.
    • According to Heraclitus, the world order is like an “ever-living fire,” kindling and extinguishing in measured ways.
  • Logos and Universal Principle:
    • Heraclitus introduced the concept of the logos (Greek: “reason” or “word”). The logos represents the universal principle through which all things are interconnected, and natural events occur.
    • He lamented that most people failed to comprehend the logos, leading them to live like dreamers with a false view of the world.
    • A significant manifestation of the logos, according to Heraclitus, lies in the underlying connection between opposites. For instance, health and disease define each other, and good and evil are interrelated.
  • Unity of Opposites:
    • Heraclitus believed that opposites are essential for existence. Hot and cold, day and night, life and death—all these dualities coexist and contribute to the overall balance of the cosmos.
    • He asserted that a single substance could be perceived in varied ways. For example, seawater is both harmful to humans and beneficial to fishes.
  • Hidden Connections and Balance:
    • Between all things, there exists a hidden connection. Even those seemingly “tending apart” are actually “being brought together.”
    • Heraclitus proposed that the world exists as a coherent system in which changes in one direction are ultimately balanced by corresponding changes in another.
  • Fragments and Lost Book:
    • Unfortunately, only fragments of Heraclitus’s writings survive. His one book, which he apparently wrote, has been lost over time.
    • Despite this, his ideas have had a profound influence on Western philosophy, emphasizing the dynamic and interconnected nature of reality.

In summary, Heraclitus’s legacy lies in his exploration of change, unity, and the underlying order of the universe. His teachings continue to inspire philosophical discussions and reflections to this day.

Life is Flux

In making his famous statement about the river, Heraclitus was simply illustrating the basic truth that life is constant flux as expressed in his famous phrase Panta Rhei (“everything changes” or “life is flux”). Heraclitus maintained that the very nature of life is change; change is not an aspect of life but life itself and to resist change is to resist life. He also claimed that there was a natural force, associated with transformative fire, which moved all things in rapid succession according to their nature and this was known as the logos.

The logos (Greek for “word”), which infuses all things (but did not create the world nor could bring about its end), operates naturally as ‘change’, but humans resist this natural flow and, because of this, cause themselves and others to suffer owing to their ignorance of the nature of life. Heraclitus wrote: “To the Logos all things are beautiful and good and just, but men have supposed some things to be unjust, others to be just.”

Heraclitus argued that permanence is an illusion, change alone is real. He postulated that the universe is in a condition of constant flux; therefore, it is impossible to step twice in the same non-stop flowing water of the same stream. That the things we see, hear, and feel are all there is to reality. Heraclitus maintained that evolution or constant change is the law of the universe—that the tree or the stone that is here today is gone tomorrow; no substance exists immutable through all eternity. Creation and destruction, life and death, Heraclitus asserted, are but the obverse and reverse sides of the same picture.

In the light of awareness, Heraclitus said, all things were good because all things were natural (a view which would influence the later development of Stoicism, as would the concept of the logos). People were born, lived, and died, and after such a death, their loved ones mourned and called the event a tragedy, but to Heraclitus, it was simply the progression of life and a natural part of the human condition. The grief and strife which accompanied a death were, in his view, part of the natural operation of the logos because he defined conflict and strife as transformative agencies.

The Illusion Of Life

People don’t see it – Anthony Hopkins on the illusion of life